MOSCOW (AP) - The doctrine, which Russia is adopting through 2020, does not include a provision for pre-emptive nuclear strikes, as officials
had previously suggested might have been present.
The document says Russia reserves the right to use nuclear force
in response to a nuclear attack or one of equivalent magnitude.
Russia's conventional military forces are in dilapidated shape,
increasing Moscow's dependence on its Cold War-era nuclear
The expansion of Western military alliance NATO is named first
in a list of main external threats to the country.
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