Birmingham police say Jeffery Matthews of Birmingham is charged with attempted murder and assault in the shooting.
Police say Matthews was firing his gun at another person but accidentally hit the girl instead.
Authorities say the girl was shot in the torso but is expected to recover from her injuries.
She is being treated at Children's Hospital.
Authorities say Matthews' mother has been charged with hindering prosecution after her son refused to surrender to authorities at her home.
Her name has not been released.
Jail officials say Matthews is being held on $75,000 bond.
It was not immediately clear whether Matthews has an attorney.
(Copyright 2011 by The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.)