Today's final report from the commission that investigated the Nine-Eleven attacks says Iraq was not involved in the terrorist plot.
But it does outline possible connections between al-Qaida and Iraq, including a 1998 meeting in Afghanistan involving an Iraqi delegation, Osama bin Laden, and members of the ruling Taliban.
Intelligence indicates that Iraq may have offered bin Laden safe haven, but he declined in favor of Afghanistan.
The report acknowledges a shared hatred of the US and "friendly contacts" between Iraq an al-Qaida, but adds none of those contacts developed into a "collaborative relationship."
President Bush and Vice President Cheney have both said ties between al-Qaida and Iraq were "real and dangerous" and justified the US invasion of Iraq last year.